Are there effective methods of training a deaf dog?

The most effective method is lots of patience, persistence, and understanding a deaf dog's ability to perceive the world. That means, you should never touch the dog all of a sudden without him seeing you first. It will make him startle and will cause anxiety problems.

There are good books about the topic that should definitely help if you have a deaf dog. One of them being Susan Cope Becker's "Living With A Deaf Dog".

To put it very briefly, deaf dogs can and should be trained by hand signs. They also become very good at reading your facial expressions. For example, a thumb up and a smile will mean "good dog", a wagging finger will mean "No", a raised hand with palm outwards will mean "sit", and so on. The number one signs you should teach a deaf dog are sit, down, stay, come, no and stop. Even though it may take more patience, training a deaf dog is very similar to training a normal dog. You just use hand signs instead of commands, and food as rewards as the dog cannot know intonations of your voice.

If you have difficulties training and communicating with your deaf dog, you can always seek a professional deaf dog trainer.

Train the dog with hand signals. My dogs are signal trained and it works well. I also have a deaf cat and he adapted to everything very well. They learn to feel you foot steps through the floor.